All the Data form the IoT Kit is put on the cloud server across each user and device profile. The Cloud based data is then used to gain insights and representation purposes. The daily analysis is carried out by fetching data using cloud APIs and depending on the environmental sensing the blockchain based smart contract issues tokens to its users as a reward for contributing to climate tracking (Climate Mining). These tokens can be used as the utility token to create and support a campaign related to Climate Action on the ClimateOrb Platform. Having the ability to sense our surrounding and built-in machine learning, these devices can guide us to improve our environment. Our long-term goal is to collect environmental data all around the globe, from all the connected nodes to our IPFS cluster on the blockchain network. With this data we try and solve critical problems related to global climate change. We can provide this authentic data on demand to the environmental scientists. This data will also help us in improving our machine learning models to power our next generation of ClimateOrb devices.
PM2.5 & PM10 are given their names based on the sizing of the particles they are made up of.
PM10 are inhalable particles, with diameters that are generally 10 micrometers.
PM2.5 fine inhalable particles, with diameters that are 2.5 micrometers and smaller. Think about a single hair from your head. The average human hair is about 70 micrometers in diameter – making it 30 times larger than the largest fine particle.
These particles come in many sizes and shapes and can be made up of hundreds of different chemicals. Some are emitted directly from a source, such as construction sites, unpaved roads, fields, smokestacks or fires. Most particles form in the atmosphere as a result of complex reactions of chemicals such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are pollutants emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles.
Small particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream.
Exposure to such particles can affect both your lungs and your heart. Numerous scientific studies have linked particle pollution exposure to a variety of problems, including:
In order to be aware of safe levels of PM 2.5 & 10 we have created an Air Quality Index:
Carbon Monoxide is a poisonous gas that has no smell or taste. It is one of the most harmful gases potentially found inside the household as immediate exposure can cause illness or death if exposed to high levels.After carbon monoxide is breathed in, it enters your bloodstream and mixes with haemoglobin (the part of red blood cells that carry oxygen around your body) to form carboxyhaemoglobin. When this happens, the blood is no longer able to carry oxygen, and this lack of oxygen causes the body’s cells and tissues to fail and die.
For this reason, it is essential to be aware of the levels of Carbon Monoxide inside your home. Please see below the Air Quality Index for Carbon Monoxide levels and their symptoms:
Sulfur dioxide is a colourless gas with a very strong odour. It ends up in our atmosphere primarily due to activities associated with the burning of fossil fuels such as at power plants or copper smelting. Sulfur Dioxide can also be released into the air through natural means e.g. volcanic eruptions.
If you breathe air containing sulfur dioxide, it will be absorbed into your body and rapidly enter the bloodstream.
In the long-term, 1-year average concentrations of sulfur dioxide should not exceed 30 ppb 0.03 ppm.
The short-term, 24-hour average concentration should not exceed 140 ppb 0.14 ppm more than once a year.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, governmental agency of America) regulates levels of sulfur dioxide in the workplace. This regulation states that workroom air should contain no more than an average of 2 ppm sulfur dioxide over an 8-hour working shift for 5 consecutive days in a workweek.
NIOSH (American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) recommends that the average workroom air levels of sulfur dioxide not exceed 2 ppm over a 10-hour period.
The 15-minute average exposure in air that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday is 5 ppm.
Please see below the Air Quality Index for Sulfur Dioxide:
Scientific evidence links short-term NO2 exposures, ranging from 30 minutes to 24 hours, with adverse respiratory effects including airway inflammation in healthy people and increased respiratory symptoms in people with asthma. Studies also show a connection between short-term exposure and increased emergency room visits and hospital admissions for respiratory illnesses.
NB: EPA retained the annual average NO2 standard of 53 ppb.
Guidelines for Air Quality Index of Nitrogen Dioxide:
Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant that is not emitted by a primary source. In fact, it is produced as a consequence of other pollutants already in our atmosphere and hot weather conditions. E.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) and the energy from solar ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This type of ozone-laden atmospheric pollution, often called "smog", occurs in the lower layer of the atmosphere.
Guidelines for Air Quality Index of Ground-Level Ozone Pollution:
TVOCs are primarily an indoor air quality concern. This is because studies have shown that levels of several volatile organic compounds average 2 to 5 times higher indoors than outdoors.
Common examples of TVOCs that may be present in our daily lives are: benzene, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, methylene chloride etc. These tend to be present in day to day household items such as: Paint, varnishes, caulks, adhesives, Carpet, vinyl flooring, Air fresheners, cleaning products, smoke, cooking etc. Some even appear naturally in certain types of wood.
Nonetheless, an excessive amount of VOCs in your household have been shown to cause negative health effects. For example:
The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has stated that levels greater than 0.5 ppb (parts per billion) inside households could pose a health hazard. However, data from thousands of homes tested showed the median value of 1.2 ppb, more than twice the recommended level. Even slightly elevated levels of these airborne chemicals could produce health concerns for people, particularly young children, the elderly, pregnant women, and those who suffer from allergies and asthma. Therefore, our recommendation would be to keep your living area as ventilated as possible to prevent exposure to TVOCs.